Ethic Codes

Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code Of Conduct 2003

www.apa.org/ethics/codes/principles.pdf 

Code of Ethics for Marriage and Family Therapists 2009

www.camft.org/Content/NavigationMenu/AboutCAMFT/CodeofEthicsPart/CodeOfEthicsPartl.pdf

AAMFT Code 2012

www.aamft.org/iMIS15/AAMFT/Content/legal_ethics/code_of_ethics.aspx 

Social Work Code of Ethics 2008 Revision

www.socialworkers.org/pubs/code/default.asp

American Nurses Association Code of Ethics

www.nursingworld.org/codeofethics

Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists

www.iupsys.net/about/governance/universal-declaration-of-ethical-principles-for-psychologists.html

Madrid Declaration on Ethical Standards for Psychiatric Practice

www.wpanet.org/detail.php?section_id=5&content_id=48

Rules of Professional Responsibility for Lawyers

TABLE OF CONTENTS

(Current rules as of August 1, 2008. The operative dates of select rule amendments are shown at the end of relevant rules.)

CHAPTER 1.

PROFESSIONAL INTEGRITY IN GENERAL

Rule 1-100. Rules of Professional Conduct, in General

(A) Purpose and Function.

The following rules are intended to regulate professional conduct of members of the State Bar through discipline.  They have been adopted by the Board of Governors of the State Bar of California and approved by the Supreme Court of California pursuant to Business and Professions Code sections 6076 and 6077 to protect the public and to promote respect and confidence in the legal profession.  These rules together with any standards adopted by the Board of Governors pursuant to these rules shall be binding upon all members of the State Bar.

For a willful breach of any of these rules, the Board of Governors has the power to discipline members as provided by law.

The prohibition of certain conduct in these rules is nonexclusive. Members are also bound by applicable law including the State Bar Act (Bus. & Prof. Code, §6000et seq.) and opinions of California courts. Although nonbinding, opinions of ethics committees in California should be consulted by members for guidance on proper professional conduct. Ethics opinions and rules and standards promulgated by other jurisdictions and bar associations may also be considered.

These rules are not intended to create new civil causes of action. Nothing in these rules shall be deemed to create, augment, diminish, or eliminate any substantive legal duty of lawyers or the non-disciplinary consequences of violating such a duty.

(B) Definitions.

(1)
    “Law Firm” means:

    (a)
        two or more lawyers whose activities constitute the practice of law, and who share its profits, expenses, and liabilities; or
    (b)
        a law corporation which employs more than one lawyer; or
    (c)
        a division, department, office, or group within a business entity, which includes more than one lawyer who performs legal services for the business entity; or
    (d)
        a publicly funded entity which employs more than one lawyer to perform legal services.

(2)
    “Member” means a member of the State Bar of California.
(3)
    “Lawyer” means a member of the State Bar of California or a person who is admitted in good standing of and eligible to practice before the bar of any United States court or the highest court of the District of

Columbia or any state, territory, or insular possession of the United States, or is licensed to practice law in, or is admitted in good standing and eligible to practice before the bar of the highest court of, a foreign country or any political subdivision thereof.

(4)
    “Associate” means an employee or fellow employee who is employed as a lawyer.
(5)
    “Shareholder” means a shareholder in a professional corporation pursuant to Business and Professions Code section 6160 et seq.

(C)
    Purpose of Discussions.

Because it is a practical impossibility to convey in blackletter form all of the nuances of these disciplinary rules, the comments contained in the Discussions of the rules, while they do not add independent basis for imposing discipline, are intended to provide guidance for interpreting the rules and practicing in compliance with them.

(D)
    Geographic Scope of Rules.

(1)
    As to members:

These rules shall govern the activities of members in and outside this state, except as members lawfully practicing outside this state may be specifically required by a jurisdiction in which they are practicing to follow rules of professional conduct different from these rules.

(2)
    As to lawyers from other jurisdictions who are not members:

These rules shall also govern the activities of lawyers while engaged in the performance of lawyer functions in this state; but nothing contained in these rules shall be deemed to authorize the performance of such functions by such persons in this state except as otherwise permitted by law.

(E) These rules may be cited and referred to as “Rules of Professional Conduct of the State Bar of California.”
Discussion:

The Rules of Professional Conduct are intended to establish the standards for members for purposes of discipline. (See Ames v. State Bar (1973) 8 Cal.3d 910 [106 Cal.Rptr.489].) The fact that a member has engaged in conduct that may be contrary to these rules does not automatically give rise to a civil cause of action. (See Noble v. Sears, Roebuck & Co. (1973) 33 Cal.App.3d 654 [109 Cal.Rptr. 269]; Wilhelm v. Pray, Price, Williams & Russell (1986) 186Cal.App.3d 1324 [231 Cal.Rptr. 355].) These rules are not intended to supercede existing law relating to members in non-disciplinary contexts. (See, e.g., Klemm v. Superior Court (1977) 75 Cal.App.3d 893 [142 Cal.Rptr. 509](motion for disqualification of counsel due to a conflict of interest); Academy of California Optometrists, Inc. v. Superior Court (1975) 51 Cal.App.3d 999 [124 Cal.Rptr.668] (duty to return client files); Chronometrics, Inc. v. Sysgen, Inc. (1980) 110 Cal.App.3d 597 [168 Cal.Rptr.196] (disqualification of member appropriate remedy for improper communication with adverse party).)

Law firm, as defined by subparagraph (B)(1), is not intended to include an association of lawyers who do not share profits, expenses, and liabilities. The subparagraph is not intended to imply that a law firm may include a person who is not a member in violation of the law governing the unauthorized practice of law. (Amended by order of the Supreme Court, operative September 14, 1992.)

Rule 1-110. Disciplinary Authority of the State Bar

A member shall comply with conditions attached to public or private reprovals or other discipline administered by the State Bar pursuant to Business and Professions Code sections 6077 and 6078 and rule 9.19, California Rules of Court. (Amended by order of the Supreme Court, operative July 11, 2008.)

Rule 1-120. Assisting, Soliciting, or Inducing Violations

A member shall not knowingly assist in, solicit, or induce any violation of these rules or the State Bar Act.
Rule1-200.FalseStatementRegardingAdmission to the State Bar

(A) A member shall not knowingly make a false statement regarding a material fact or knowingly fail to disclose a material fact in connection with an application for admission to the State Bar.

(B) A member shall not further an application for admission to the State Bar of a person whom the member knows to be unqualified in respect to character, education, or other relevant attributes.

(C) This rule shall not prevent a member from serving as counsel of record for an applicant for admission to practice in proceedings related to such admission.
Discussion:

For purposes of rule 1-200 “admission” includes readmission.

Rule 1-300. Unauthorized Practice of Law

(A)
    A member shall not aid any person or entity in the unauthorized practice of law.
(B)
    A member shall not practice law in a jurisdiction whereto do so would be in violation of regulations of the profession in that jurisdiction.

Rule 1-310. Forming a Partnership With a Non-Lawyer

A member shall not form a partnership with a person who is not a lawyer if any of the activities of that partnership consist of the practice of law.
Discussion:

Rule 1-310 is not intended to govern members’ activities which cannot be considered to constitute the practice of law. It is intended solely to preclude a member from being involved in the practice of law with a person who is not a lawyer. (Amended by order of Supreme Court, operative September 14, 1992.)
Rule1-311.Employment of Disbarred, Suspended, Resigned, or Involuntarily Inactive Member.

(A)
    For purposes of this rule:

(1)
    “Employ” means to engage the services of another ,including employees, agents, independent contractors and consultants, regardless of whether any compensation is paid;
(2)
    “Involuntarily inactive member” means a member who is ineligible to practice law as a result of action taken pursuant to Business and Professions Code sections 6007, 6203(c), or California Rule of Court 9.31; and
(3)
    “Resigned member” means a member who has resigned from the State Bar while disciplinary charges are pending.

(B)
    A member shall not employ, associate professionally with, or aid a person the member knows or reasonably should know is a disbarred, suspended, resigned, or involuntarily inactive member to perform the following on behalf of the member’s client:

(1)
    Render legal consultation or advice to the client;
(2)
    Appear on behalf of a client in any hearing or proceeding or before any judicial officer, arbitrator, mediator, court, public agency, referee, magistrate, commissioner, or hearing officer;

(3)    Appearas a representative of the client at a deposition or other discovery matter;

(4)
    Negotiate or transact any matter for or on behalf of the client with third parties;
(5)
    Receive, disburse or otherwise handle the client’s funds; or
(6)
    Engage in activities which constitute the practice of law.

(C)
    A member may employ, associate professionally with, or aid a disbarred, suspended, resigned, or involuntarily inactive member to perform research, drafting or clerical activities, including but not limited to:

(1)
    Legal work of a preparatory nature, such as legal research, the assemblage of data and other necessary information, drafting of pleadings, briefs, and other similar documents;
(2)
    Direct communication with the client or third parties regarding matters such as scheduling, billing, updates, confirmation of receiptor sending of correspondence and messages; or
(3)
    Accompanying an active member in attending a deposition or other discovery matter for the limited purpose of providing clerical assistance to the active member who will appear as the representative of the client.

(D)
    Prior to or at the time of employing a person the member knows or reasonably should know is a disbarred, suspended, resigned, or involuntarily inactive member, the member shall serve upon the State Bar written notice of the employment, including a full description of such person’s current bar status. The written notice shall also list the activities prohibited in paragraph (B) and state that the disbarred, suspended, resigned, or involuntarily inactive member will not perform such activities. The member shall serve similar written notice upon each client on whose specific matter such person will work, prior to or at the time of employing such person to work on the client’s specific matter. The member shall obtain proof of service of the client’s written notice and shall retain such proof and a true and correct copy of the client’s written notice for two years following termination of the member’s employment with the client.

(E) A member may, without client or State Bar notification, employ a disbarred, suspended, resigned, or involuntarily inactive member whose sole function is to perform office physical plant or equipment maintenance, courier or delivery services, catering, reception, typing or transcription, or other similar support activities.

(F) Upon termination of the disbarred, suspended, resigned, or involuntarily inactive member, the member shall promptly serve upon the State Bar written notice of the termination.
Discussion:

For discussion of the activities that constitute the practice of law, see Farnham v. State Bar (1976) 17 Cal.3d 605 [131 Cal.Rptr. 611]; Bluestein v. State Bar (1974) 13 Cal.3d 162 [118 Cal.Rptr. 175]; Baron v. City of Los Angeles (1970) 2 Cal.3d 535 [86 Cal.Rptr. 673]; Crawford v. State Bar (1960) 54 Cal.2d 659 [7 Cal.Rptr. 746]; People v. Merchants Protective Corporation (1922) 189 Cal. 531, 535 [209 P. 363]; People v. Landlords Professional Services (1989) 215 Cal.App.3d 1599 [264 Cal.Rptr. 548]; and People v. Sipper (1943) 61 Cal.App.2d Supp. 844 [142 P.2d 960].)

Paragraph (D) is not intended to prevent or discourage a member from fully discussing with the client the activities that will be performed by the disbarred, suspended, resigned, or involuntarily inactive member on the client’s matter. If a member’s client is an organization, then the written notice required by paragraph (D) shall be served upon the highest authorized officer, employee, or constituent over seeing the particular engagement.(Seerule3-600.)

Nothing in rule 1-311 shall be deemed to limit or preclude any activity engaged in pursuant to rules 9.40, 9.41, 9.42,and 9.44 of the California Rules of Court, or any local rule of a federal district court concerning admission pro advice. (Added by Order of Supreme Court, operative August1, 1996. Amended by order of the Supreme Court, operative July 11, 2008.)

Rule 1-320. Financial Arrangements With Non-Lawyers

(A) Neither a member nor a law firm shall directly or indirectly share legal fees with a person who is not a lawyer, except that:

(1) An agreement between a member and a law firm, partner, or associate may provide for the payment of money after the member’s death to the member’s estate or to one or more specified persons over a reasonable period of time; or

(2)
    A member or law firm undertaking to complete unfinished legal business of a deceased member may pay to the estate of the deceased member or other person legally entitled thereto that proportion of the total compensation which fairly represents the services rendered by the deceased member; or
(3)
    A member or law firm may include non-member employees in a compensation, profit-sharing, or retirement plan even though the plan is based in whole or in part on a profit-sharing arrangement, if such plan does not circumvent these rules or Business and Professions Code section 6000 et seq.; or
(4)
    A member may pay a prescribed registration, referral, or participation fee to a lawyer referral service established, sponsored, and operated in accordance with the State Bar of California’s Minimum Standards for a Lawyer Referral Service in California.

(B)
    A member shall not compensate, give, or promise anything of value to any person or entity for the purpose of recommending or securing employment of the member or the member’s law firm by a client, or as a reward for having made a recommendation resulting in employment of the member or the member’s law firm by a client. A member’s offer in go for giving a gift or gratuity to any person or entity having made a recommendation resulting in the employment of the member or the member’s law firm shall not of itself violate this rule, provided that the gift or gratuity was not offered or given in consideration of any promise, agreement, or understanding that such a gift or gratuity would be forthcoming or that referrals would be made or encouraged in the future.
(C)
    A member shall not compensate, give, or promise anything of value to any representative of the press, radio, television, or other communication medium in anticipation of or in return for publicity of the member, the law firm, or any other member as such in a news item, but the incidental provision of food or beverage shall not of itself violate this rule.

Discussion:

Rule 1-320(C) is not intended to preclude compensation tithe communications media in exchange for advertising the member’s or law firm’s availability for professional employment . (Amended by order of Supreme Court, operative September 14, 1992.)
Rule 1-400.Advertising and Solicitation

(A) For purposes of this rule, “communication” means any message or offer made by or on behalf of a member concerning the availability for professional employment of a member or a law firm directed to any former, present, or prospective client, including but not limited to the following:

(1) Any use of firm name, trade name, fictitious name, or other professional designation of such member or law firm; or

(2)
    Any stationery, letterhead, business card, sign, brochure, or other comparable written material describing such member, law firm, or lawyers; or
(3)
    Any advertisement (regardless of medium) of such member or law firm directed to the general public or any substantial portion thereof; or
(4)
    Any unsolicited correspondence from a member or law firm directed to any person or entity.

(B)
    For purposes of this rule, a “solicitation” means any communication:

(1)
    Concerning the availability for professional employment of a member or a law firm in which a significant motive is pecuniary gain; and

(2)
    Which is;

(a)
    delivered in person or by telephone, or
(b)
    directed by any means to a person known to the sender to be represented by counsel in a matter which is a subject of the communication.

(C)
    A solicitation shall not be made by or on behalf of a member or law firm to a prospective client with whom the member or law firm has no family or prior professional relationship, unless the solicitation is protected from abridgment by the Constitution of the United States or by the Constitution of the State of California. A solicitation to a former or present client in the discharge of a member’s or law firm’s professional duties is not prohibited.

(D) A communication or a solicitation (as defined herein) shall not:

(1)
    Contain any untrue statement; or
(2)
    Contain any matter, or present or arrange any matter in a manner or format which is false, deceptive, or which tends to confuse, deceive, or mislead the public; or
(3)
    Omit to state any fact necessary to make the statements made, in the light of circumstances under which they are made, not misleading to the public; or
(4)
    Fail to indicate clearly, expressly, or by context, that it is a communication or solicitation, as the case may be; or
(5)
    Be transmitted in any manner which involves intrusion, coercion, duress, compulsion, intimidation, threats, or vexatious or harassing conduct.
(6)
    State that a member is a “certified specialist” unless the member holds a current certificate as a specialist issued by the Board of Legal Specialization, or any other entity accredited by the State Bar to designate specialists pursuant to standards adopted by the Board of Governors, and states the complete name of the entity which granted certification.

(E) The Board of Governors of the State Bar shall formulate and adopt standards as to communications which will be presumed to violate this rule 1-400. The standards shall only be used as presumptions affecting the burden of proof in disciplinary proceedings involving alleged violations of these rules. “Presumption affecting the burden of proof” means that presumption defined in Evidence Code sections605 and 606. Such standards formulated and adopted by the Board, as from time to time amended, shall be effective and binding on all members.

(F) A member shall retain for two years a true and correct copy or recording of any communication made by written or electronic media.  Upon written request ,the member shall make any such copy or recording available to the State Bar, and, if requested, shall provide to the State Bar evidence to support any factual or objective claim contained in the communication.

(Former rule1-400 (D)(6) repealed by order of the Supreme Court effective November 30,1992. New rule 1-400 (D)(6) added by order of the Supreme Court effective June 1,1997.)
Standards:

Pursuant to rule 1-400(E) the Board of Governors of the State Bar has adopted the following standards, effective May 27, 1989, unless noted otherwise, as forms of “communication” defined in rule 1-400(A) which are presumed to be in violation of rule 1-400:

(1)
    A “communication” which contains guarantees, warranties, or predictions regarding the result of the representation.
(2)
    A “communication” which contains testimonials about or endorsements of a member unless such communication also contains an express disclaimer such as “this testimonial or endorsement does not constitute a guarantee, warranty, or prediction regarding the outcome of your legal matter.”
(3)
    A “communication” which is delivered to a potential client whom the member knows or should reasonably know is in as much physical, emotional, or mental state that he or she would not be expected to exercise reasonable judgment as to the retention of counsel.
(4)
    A “communication” which is transmitted at the scene of an accident or at or en route to a hospital, emergency care center, or other health care facility.
(5)
    A “communication,” except professional announcements, seeking professional employment for pecuniary gain, which is transmitted by mail or equivalent means which does not bear the word “Advertisement,” “Newsletter” or words of similar import in 12 point print on the first page. If such communication, including firm brochures, newsletters, recent legal development advisories, and similar materials, is transmitted in an envelope, the envelope shall bear the word “Advertisement,” “Newsletter” or words of similar import on the outside thereof.
(6)
    A “communication” in the form of a firm name, trade name, fictitious name, or other professional designation which states or implies a relationship between any member in private practice and a government agency or instrumentality or a public or non-profit legal services organization.

(7)
    A “communication” in the form of a firm name, trade name, fictitious name, or other professional designation which states or implies that a member has a relationship to any other lawyer or a law firms a partner or associate, or officer or shareholder pursuant to Business and Professions Code sections 6160-6172 unless such relationship in fact exists.
(8)
    A “communication” which states or implies that a member or law firm is “of counsel” to another lawyer or a law firm unless the former has a relationship with the latter (other than as a partner or associate, or officer or shareholder pursuant to Business and Professions Codesections6160-6172)whichisclose,personal,continuous,and regular.
(9)
    A “communication” in the form of a firm name, trade name, fictitious name, or other professional designation used by a member or law firm in private practice which differs materially from any other such designation used by such member or law firm at the same time in the same community.
(10)
    A “communication” which implies that the member or law firm is participating in a lawyer referral service which has been certified by the State Bar of California or as having satisfied the Minimum Standards for Lawyer Referral Services in California, when that is not the case.
(11)
    A “communication” which states or implies that a member is a “certified specialist” unless such communication also states the complete name of the entity which granted the certification as a specialist.

(Publisher’s Note: Standard (11) was repealed, effective June 1, 1997. See rule 1-400(D)(6) for the operative language on this subject.)

(12)
    A “communication,” except professional announcements, in the form of an advertisement primarily directed to seeking professional employment primarily for pecuniary gain transmitted to the general public or any substantial portion thereof by mail or equivalent means or by means of television, radio, newspaper, magazine or other form of commercial mass media which does not state the name of the member responsible for the communication. When the communication is made on behalf of a law firm, the communication shall state the name of at least one member responsible for it.
(13)
    A “communication” which contains a dramatization unless such communication contains a disclaimer which states “this is a dramatization” or words of similar import.
(14)
    A “communication” which states or implies “no fee without recovery” unless such communication also expressly discloses whether or not the client will be liable for costs.
(15)
    A “communication” which states or implies that a member is able to provide legal services in a language other than English unless the member can actually provide legal services in such language or the communication also states in the language of the communication (a) the employment title of the person who speaks such language and (b) that the person is nota member of the State Bar of California, if that is the case.

(16) An unsolicited “communication” transmitted to the general public or any substantial portion thereof primarily directed to seeking professional employment primarily for pecuniary gain which sets forth a specific fee or range of fees for a particular service where, in fact, the member charges a greater fee than advertised in such communication within a period of 90 days following dissemination of such communication, unless such communication expressly specifies a shorter period of time regarding the advertised fee. Where the communication is published in the classified or “yellow pages” section of telephone, business or legal directories or in other media not published more frequently than once a year, the member shall conform to the advertised fee for a period of one year from initial publication, unless such communication expressly specifies a shorter period of time regarding the advertised fee. (Amended by order of Supreme Court, operative September 14,1992. Standard (5) amended by the Board of Governors, effective May 11, 1994. Standards (12) -(16) added by the Board of Governors, effective May 11, 1994.)

Rule 1-500. Agreements Restricting a Member’s Practice

(A)
    A member shall not be a party to or participate in offering or making an agreement, whether in connection with the settlement of a lawsuit or otherwise, if the agreement restricts the right of a member to practice law, except that this rule shall not prohibit such an agreement which:

(1)
    Is a part of an employment, shareholders’, or partnership agreement among members provided the restrictive agreement does not survive the termination of the employment, shareholder, or partnership relationship; or
(2)
    Requires payments to a member upon the member’s retirement from the practice of law; or
(3)
    Is authorized by Business and Professions Code sections 6092.5 subdivision (i), or 6093.

(B)
    A member shall not be a party to or participate in offering or making an agreement which precludes the reporting of a violation of these rules.

Discussion:

Paragraph (A) makes it clear that the practice, in connection with settlement agreements, of proposing that a member refrain from representing other clients in similar litigation, is prohibited. Neither counsel may demand or suggest such provisions nor may opposing counsel accede or agree to such provisions.

Paragraph (A) permits a restrictive covenant in a law corporation, partnership, or employment agreement. The law corporation shareholder, partner, or associate may agree not to have a separate practice during the existence of the relationship; however, upon termination of the relationship (whether voluntary or involuntary), the member is free to practice law without any contractual restriction except in the case of retirement from the active practice of law. (Amended by order of Supreme Court, operative September 14, 1992.)

Rule 1-600. Legal Service Programs

(A)
    A member shall not participate in a nongovernmental program, activity, or organization furnishing, recommending, or paying for legal services, which allows any third person or organization to interfere with the member’s independence of professional judgment, or with the client-lawyer relationship, or allows unlicensed persons to practice law, or allows any third person or organization to receive directly or indirectly any part of the consideration paid to the member except as permitted by these rules, or otherwise violates the State Bar Act or these rules.
(B)
    The Board of Governors of the State Bar shall formulate and adopt Minimum Standards for Lawyer Referral Services, which, as from time to time amended, shall be binding on members.

Discussion:

The participation of a member in a lawyer referral service established, sponsored, supervised, and operated in conformity with the Minimum Standards for a Lawyer Referral Service in California is encouraged and is not, of itself, a violation of these rules.

Rule 1-600 is not intended to override any contractual agreement or relationship between insurers and insured regarding the provision of legal services.

Rule 1-600 is not intended to apply to the activities of a public agency responsible for providing legal services to a government or to the public.

For purposes of paragraph (A), “a nongovernmental program, activity, or organization” includes, but is not limited to group, prepaid, and voluntary legal service programs, activities, or organizations.

Rule 1-700. Member as Candidate for Judicial Office

(A)
    A member who is a candidate for judicial office in California shall comply with Canon 5 of the Code of Judicial Ethics.
(B)
    For purposes of this rule, “candidate for judicial office” means a member seeking judicial office by election. The determination of when a member is a candidate for judicial office is defined in the terminology section of the California Code of Judicial Ethics. A member’s duty to comply with paragraph (A) shall end when the member announces withdrawal of the member’s candidacy or when the results of the election are final, whichever occurs first.

Discussion:

Nothing in rule 1-700 shall be deemed to limit the applicability of any other rule or law. (Added by order of the Supreme Court, operative November 21, 1997.)

Rule 1-710. Member as Temporary Judge, Referee, or Court-Appointed Arbitrator

A member who is serving as a temporary judge, referee, or court-appointed arbitrator, and is subject under the Code of Judicial Ethics to Canon 6D, shall comply with the terms of that canon.
Discussion:

This rule is intended to permit the State Bar to discipline members who violate applicable portions of the Code of Judicial Ethics while acting in a judicial capacity pursuant to an order or appointment by a court.

Nothing in rule 1-710 shall be deemed to limit the applicability of any other rule or law. (Added by order of the Supreme Court, operative March 18, 1999.)

Publisher’s Note: The California Code of Judicial Ethics is available on-line at the official website of the California Courts located at www.courtinfo.ca.go . Select “Code of Judicial Ethics” in the “Rules” area of the website.

CHAPTER 2.
RELATIONSHIP AMONG MEMBERS

Rule 2-100. Communication With a Represented Party

(A)
    While representing a client, a member shall not communicate directly or indirectly about the subject of the representation with a party the member knows to be represented by another lawyer in the matter, unless the member has the consent of the other lawyer.

(B)
    For purposes of this rule, a “party” includes:

(1)
    An officer, director, or managing agent of a corporation or association, and a partner or managing agent of a partnership; or
(2)
    An association member or an employee of an association, corporation, or partnership, if the subject of the communication is any act or omission of such person in connection with the matter which maybe binding up on or imputed to the organization for purposes of civil or criminal liability or whose statement may constitute an admission on the part of the organization.

(C)
    This rule shall not prohibit:

(1)
    Communications with a public officer, board, committee, or body; or
(2)
    Communications initiated by a party seeking advice or representation from an independent lawyer of the party’s choice; or
(3)
    Communications otherwise authorized by law.

Discussion:

Rule 2-100 is intended to control communications between a member and persons the member knows to be represented by counsel unless a statutory scheme or case law will override the rule. There are a number of express statutory schemes which authorize communications between a member and person who would otherwise be subject to this rule. These statutes protect a variety of other rights such as the right of employees to organize and to engage in collective bargaining, employee health and safety, or equal employment opportunity. Other applicable law also includes the authority of government prosecutors and investigators to conduct criminal investigations, as limited by the relevant decisional law.

Rule 2-100 is not intended to prevent the parties themselves from communicating with respect to the subject matter of the representation, and nothing in the rule prevents a member from advising the client that such communication can be made. Moreover, the rule does not prohibit a member who is also a party to a legal matter from directly or indirectly communicating on his or her own behalf with a represented party. Such a member has independent rights as a party which should not be abrogated because of his or her professional status. To prevent any possible abuse in such situations, the counsel for the opposing party may advise that party (1) about the risks and benefits of communications with a lawyer-party, and (2) not to acceptor engage in communications with the lawyer-party.

Rule 2-100 also addresses the situation in which member A is contacted by an opposing party who is represented and, because of dissatisfaction with that party’s counsel, seeks A’s independent advice. Since A is employed by the opposition, the member cannot give independent advice.

As used in paragraph (A), “the subject of the representation,” “matter,” and “party” are not limited to a litigation context.

Paragraph (B) is intended to apply only to persons employed at the time of the communication. (See Triple A Machine Shop, Inc. v. State of California (1989) 213 Cal.App.3d 131 [261 Cal.Rptr. 493].)

Subparagraph (C)(2) is intended to permit a member to communicate with a party seeking to hire new counsel or to obtain a second opinion. A member contacted by such a party continues to be bound by other Rules of Professional Conduct. (See, e.g., rules 1-400 and 3-310.) (Amended by order of Supreme Court, operative September 14, 1992.)

Rule 2-200. Financial Arrangements Among Lawyers

(A)
    A member shall not divide a fee for legal services with a lawyer who is not a partner of, associate of, or shareholder with the member unless:

(1)
    The client has consented in writing thereto after a full disclosure has been made in writing that a division offees will be made and the terms of such division; and
(2)
    The total fee charged by all lawyers is not increased solely by reason of the provision for division of fees and is not unconscionable as that term is defined in rule 4

200.

(B)
    Except as permitted in paragraph (A) of this rule or rule2-300, a member shall not compensate, give, or promise anything of value to any lawyer for the purpose of recommending or securing employment of the member or the member’s law firm by a client, or as a reward for having made a recommendation resulting in employment of the member or the member’s law firm by a client. A member’s offering of or giving a gift or gratuity to any lawyer who has made a recommendation resulting in the employment of the member or the member’s law firm shall not of itself violate this rule, provided that the gift or gratuity was not offered in consideration of any promise, agreement, or understanding that such a gift or gratuity would be forthcoming or that referrals would be made or encouraged in the future.

Rule 2-300. Sale or Purchase of a Law Practice of a Member, Living or Deceased

All or substantially all of the law practice of a member, living or deceased, including goodwill, may be sold to another member or law firm subject to all the following conditions:

(A) Fees charged to clients shall not be increased solely by reason of such sale.

(B) If the sale contemplates the transfer of responsibility for work not yet completed or responsibility for client files or information protected by Business and Professions Code section 6068, subdivision (e), then;

(1)
    if the seller is deceased, or has a conservator or other person acting in a representative capacity, and no member has been appointed to act for the seller pursuant to Business and Professions Code section 6180.5, then prior to the transfer;

(a)
    the purchaser shall cause a written notice to be given to the client stating that the interest in the law practice is being transferred to the purchaser; that the client has the right to retain other counsel; that the client may take possession of any client papers and property, as required by rule 3-700(D); and that if no response is received to the notification within 90 days of the sending of such notice, or in the event the client’s rights would be prejudiced by a failure to act during that time, the purchaser may act on behalf of the client until otherwise notified by the client. Such notice shall comply with the requirements as set forth in rule 1400(D) and any provisions relating to attorney-client fee arrangements, and
(b)
    the purchaser shall obtain the written consent of the client provided that such consent shall be presumed until otherwise notified by the client if no response is received to the notification specified in subparagraph
(a)
    within 90 days of the date of the sending of such notification to the client’s last address as shown on the records of the seller, or the client’s rights would be prejudiced by a failure to act during such 90-dayperiod.

(2)
    in all other circumstances, not less than 90 days prior to the transfer;

(a) the seller, or the member appointed to act for the seller pursuant to Business and Professions Code section 6180.5, shall cause a written notice to be given to the client stating that the interest in the law practice is being transferred to the purchaser; that the client has the right to retain other counsel; that the client may take possession of any client papers and property, as required by rule 3-700(D); and that if no response is received to the notification within 90 days of the sending of such notice, the purchaser may act on behalf of the client until otherwise notified by the client. Such notice shall comply with the requirements as set for thin rule 1-400(D) and any provisions relating to attorney-client fee arrangements, and

(b) the seller, or the member appointed to act for the seller pursuant to Business and Professions Code section 6180.5, shall obtain the written consent of the client prior to the transfer provided that such consent shall be presumed until otherwise notified by the client if no response is received to the notification specified in subparagraph (a) within 90 days of the date of the sending of such notification to the client’s last address as shown on the records of the seller.

(C)
    If substitution is required by the rules of a tribunal in which a matter is pending, all steps necessary to substitute a member shall be taken.
(D)
    All activity of a purchaser or potential purchaser under this rule shall be subject to compliance with rules 3-300 and3-310 where applicable.

(E) Confidential information shall not be disclosed to a nonmember in connection with a sale under this rule.

(F) Admission to or retirement from a law partnership or law corporation, retirement plans and similar arrangements, or sale of tangible assets of a law practice shall not be deemed a sale or purchase under this rule.
Discussion:

Paragraph (A) is intended to prohibit the purchaser from charging the former clients oft he seller a higher fee than the purchaser is charging his or her existing clients.

“All or substantially all of the law practice of a member” means, for purposes of rule 2-300, that, for example, a member may retain one or two clients who have such along standing personal and professional relationship with the member that transfer of those clients’ files is not feasible. Conversely, rule 2-300 is not intended to authorize the sale of a law practice in a piecemeal fashion except as may be required by subparagraph (B)(1)(a) or paragraph (D).

Transfer of individual client matters, where permitted, is governed by rule 2-200. Payment of a fee to a non-lawyer broker for arranging the sale or purchase of a law practice is governed by rule 1-320. (Amended by order of Supreme Court, operative September 14, 1992.)

Rule 2-400. Prohibited Discriminatory Conduct in a Law Practice.

(A) For purposes of this rule:

(1)
    “law practice” includes sole practices, law partnerships, law corporations, corporate and government all legal departments, and other entities which employ members to practice law;
(2)
    “knowingly permit” means a failure to advocate corrective action where the member knows of a discriminatory policy or practice which results in the unlawful discrimination prohibited in paragraph (B); and
(3)
    “unlawfully” and “unlawful” shall be determined by reference to applicable state or federal statutes or decisions making unlawful discrimination in employment and in offering goods and services to the public.

(B)
    In the management or operation of a law practice, a member shall not unlawfully discriminate or knowingly permit unlawful discrimination on the basis of race ,national origin, sex, sexual orientation, religion, age or disability in:

(1)
    hiring, promoting, discharging, or otherwise determining the conditions of employment of any person; or
(2)
    accepting or terminating representation of any client.

(C)
    No disciplinary investigation or proceeding may be initiated by the State Bar against a member under this rule unless and until a tribunal of competent jurisdiction, other than a disciplinary tribunal, shall have first adjudicated a complaint of alleged discrimination and found that unlawful conduct occurred. Upon such adjudication, the tribunal finding or verdict shall then be admissible evidence of the occurrence or non-occurrence o the alleged discrimination in any disciplinary proceeding initiated under this rule. In order for discipline to be imposed under this rule, however, the finding of unlawfulness must be upheld and final after appeal, the time for filing an appeal must have expired, or the appeal must have been dismissed.

Discussion:

In order for discriminatory conduct to be actionable under this rule, it must first be found to be unlawful by an appropriate civil administrative or judicial tribunal under applicable state or federal law. Until there is a finding of civil unlawfulness, there is no basis for disciplinary action under this rule.

A complaint of misconduct based on this rule may be filed with the State Bar following a finding of unlawfulness in the first instance even though that finding is thereafter appealed.

A disciplinary investigation or proceeding for conduct coming within this rule may be initiated and maintained, however, if such conduct warrants discipline under California Business and Professions Code sections 6106 and 6068,the California Supreme Court’s inherent authority to impose discipline, or other disciplinary standard.(Addedby order of Supreme Court, effective March 1, 1994.)

CHAPTER 3.

PROFESSIONAL RELATIONSHIP WITH CLIENTS

Rule 3-100. Confidential Information of a Client

(A)
    A member shall not reveal information protected from disclosure by Business and Professions Code section 6068,subdivision (e)(1) without the informed consent of the client, or as provided in paragraph (B) of this rule.
(B)
    A member may, but is not required to, reveal confidential information relating to the representation of a client to the extent that the member reasonably believes the disclosure is necessary to prevent a criminal act that the member reasonably believes is likely to result in death of, or substantial bodily harm to, an individual.

(C)
    Before revealing confidential information to prevent a criminal act as provided in paragraph (B), a member shall, if reasonable under the circumstances:

(1)
    make a good faith effort to persuade the client: (i) not to commit or to continue the criminal act or (ii) to pursue a course of conduct that will prevent the threatened death or substantial bodily harm; or do both (i) and (ii); and
(2)
    inform the client, at an appropriate time, of the member’s ability or decision to reveal information as provided in paragraph (B).

(D)
    In revealing confidential information as provided in paragraph (B), the member’s disclosure must be no more than is necessary to prevent the criminal act, given the information known to the member at the time of the disclosure.
(E)
    A member who does not reveal information permitted by paragraph (B) does not violate this rule.

Discussion:

[1] Duty of confidentiality. Paragraph (A) relates to a member’s obligations under Business and Professions Code section 6068, subdivision (e)(1), which provides it is a duty of a member: “To maintain inviolate the confidence, and at every peril to himself or herself to preserve the secrets, of this or her client.” A member’s duty to preserve the confidentiality of client information involves public policies of paramount importance. (In Re Jordan (1974) 12 Cal.3d 575, 580 [116 Cal.Rptr. 371].) Preserving the confidentiality of client information contributes to the trust that is the hallmark of the client-lawyer relationship. The client is thereby encouraged to seek legal assistance and to communicate fully and frankly with the lawyer even as to embarrassing or legally damaging subject matter. The lawyer needs this information to represent the client effectively and, if necessary, to advise the client to refrain from wrongful conduct. Almost without exception, clients come to lawyers in order to determine their rights and what is, in the complex of laws and regulations, deemed to be legal and correct. Based upon experience, lawyers know that almost all clients follow the advice given, and the law is upheld. Paragraph (A) thus recognizes a fundamental principle in the client-lawyer relationship, that, in the absence of the client’s informed consent, a member must not reveal information relating to the representation. (See, e.g., Commercial Standard Title Co. v. Superior Court(1979) 92 Cal.App.3d 934, 945 [155 Cal.Rptr.393].)

[2]Client-lawyer confidentiality encompasses the attorney client privilege, the work-product doctrine and ethical standards of confidentiality. The principle of client-lawyer confidentiality applies to information relating to the representation, whatever its source, and encompasses matters communicated in confidence by the client, and therefore protected by the attorney-client privilege, matters protected by the work product doctrine, and matters protected under ethical standards of confidentiality, all as established in law, rule and policy. (See In the Matter of Johnson (Rev. Dept. 2000) 4 Cal. State Bar Ct. Rptr. 179; Goldstein vs.Lees (1975)46 Cal.3d 614,621 [120 Cal.Rptr. 253].) The attorney-client privilege and work-product doctrine apply in judicial and other proceedings in which a member may be called as a witness or be otherwise compelled to produce evidence concerning a client. A member’s ethical duty of confidentiality is not so limited in its scope of protection for the client-lawyer relationship of trust and prevents a member from revealing the client’s confidential information even when not confronted with such compulsion. Thus, a member may not reveal such information except with the consent of the client or as authorized or required by the State Bar Act, these rules, or other law.

[3] Narrow exception to duty of confidentiality under this Rule. Notwithstanding the important public policies promoted by lawyers adhering to the core duty of confidentiality, the overriding value of life permits disclosures otherwise prohibited under Business & Professions Code section 6068(e), subdivision (1).Paragraph (B), which restates Business and Professions Code section 6068, subdivision (e)(2), identifies a narrow confidentiality exception, absent the client’s informed consent, when a member reasonably believes that disclosure is necessary to prevent a criminal act that the member reasonably believes is likely to result in the death of, or substantial bodily harm to an individual. Evidence Code section 956.5, which relates to the evidentiary attorney-client privilege, sets forth a similar express exception. Although a member is not permitted to reveal confidential information concerning a client’s past, completed criminal acts, the policy favoring the preservation of human life that underlies this exception to the duty of confidentiality and the evidentiary privilege permits disclosure to prevent a future or ongoing criminal act.

[4] Member not subject to discipline for revealing confidential information as permitted under this Rule. Rule 3-100, which restates Business and Professions Code section 6068, subdivision (e)(2), reflects a balancing between the interests of preserving client confidentiality and of preventing a criminal act that a member reasonably believes is likely to result in death or substantial bodily harm to an individual. A member who reveals information as permitted under this rule is not subject to discipline.

[5] No duty to reveal confidential information. Neither Business and Professions Code section 6068, subdivision (e)(2) nor this rule imposes an affirmative obligation on a member to reveal information in order to prevent harm. See rule 1-100(A).) A member may decide not to reveal confidential information. Whether a member chooses to reveal confidential information as permitted under this rule is a matter for the individual member to decide, based on all the facts and circumstances, such as those discussed in paragraph [6] of this discussion.

[6] Deciding to reveal confidential information as permitted under paragraph (B). Disclosure permitted under paragraph (B) is ordinarily a last resort, when no other available action is reasonably likely to prevent the criminal act. Prior to revealing information as permitted under paragraph (B), the member must, if reasonable under the circumstances, make a good faith effort to persuade the client to take steps to avoid the criminal act or threatened harm. Among the factors to be considered in determining whether to disclose confidential information are the following:

(1)
    the amount of time that the member has to make a decision about disclosure;
(2)
    whether the client or a third party has made similar threats before and whether they have ever acted or attempted to act upon them;
(3)
    whether the member believes the member’s efforts to persuade the client or a third person not to engage in the criminal conduct have or have not been successful;
(4)
    the extent of adverse effect to the client’s rights under the Fifth, Sixth and Fourteenth Amendments of the United States Constitution and analogous rights and privacy rights under Article 1 of the Constitution of the State of California that may result from disclosure contemplated by the member;
(5)
    the extent of other adverse effects to the client that may result from disclosure contemplated by the member; and
(6)
    the nature and extent of information that must be disclosed to prevent the criminal act or threatened harm.

A member may also consider whether the prospective harm to the victim or victims is imminent in deciding whether to disclose the confidential information. However, the imminence of the harm is not a prerequisite to disclosure and a member may disclose the information without waiting until immediately before the harm is likely to occur.

[7] Counseling client or third person not to commit a criminal act reasonably likely to result in death of substantial bodily harm. Subparagraph (C)(1)providesthatbefore a member may reveal confidential information, the member must, if reasonable under the circumstances, make a good faith effort to persuade the client not to commit or to continue the criminal act, or to persuade the client to otherwise pursue a course of conduct that will prevent the threatened death or substantial bodily harm, or if necessary, do both. The interests protected by such counseling is the client’s interest in limiting disclosure of confidential information and in taking responsible action to deal with situations attributable to the client. If a client, whether in response to the member’s counseling or otherwise, takes corrective action – such as by ceasing the criminal act before harm is caused–the option for permissive disclosure by the member would cease as the threat posed by the criminal act would no longer be present. When the actor is a no client or when the act is deliberate or malicious, the member who contemplates making adverse disclosure of confidential information may reasonably conclude that the compelling interests of the member or others in their own personal safety preclude personal contact with the actor. Before counseling an actor who is a no client, the member should, if reasonable under the circumstances, first advise the client of the member’s intended course of action. If a client or another person has already acted but the intended harm has not yet occurred, the member should consider, if reasonable under the circumstances, efforts to persuade the client or third person to warn the victim or consider other appropriate action to prevent the harm. Even when the member has concluded that paragraph (B) does not permit the member to reveal confidential information, the member nevertheless is permitted to counsel the client as to why it may be in the client’s best interest to consent to the attorney’s disclosure of that information.

[8] Disclosure of confidential information must be no more than is reasonably necessary to prevent the criminal act. Under paragraph (D), disclosure of confidential information, when made, must be no more extensive than the member reasonably believes necessary to prevent the criminal act. Disclosure should allow access to the confidential information to only those persons who the member reasonably believes can act to prevent the harm. Under some circumstances, a member may determine that the best course to pursue is to make an anonymous disclosure to the potential victim or relevant law-enforcement authorities. What particular measures are reasonable depends on the circumstances known to the member. Relevant circumstances include the time available, whether the victim might be unaware of the threat, the member’s prior course of dealings with the client, and the extent of the adverse effect on the client that may result from the disclosure contemplated by the member.

[9] Informing client of member’s ability or decision to reveal confidential information under subparagraph (C)(2). A member is required to keep a client reasonably informed about significant developments regarding the employment or representation. Rule 3-500; Business and Professions Code, section 6068, subdivision (m). Paragraph (C)(2), however, recognizes that under certain circumstances, informing a client of the member’s ability or decision to reveal confidential information under paragraph

(B)
    would likely increase the risk of death or substantial bodily harm, not only to the originally-intended victims of the criminal act, but also to the client or members of the client’s family, or to the member or the member’s family or associates. Therefore ,paragraph (C)(2)requiresamemberto inform the client of the member’s ability or decision to reveal confidential information as provided in paragraph

(B)
    only fit is reasonable to do so under the circumstances. Paragraph (C)(2) further recognizes that the appropriate time for the member to inform the client may vary depending upon the circumstances. (See paragraph [10] of this discussion.) Among the factors to be considered in determining an appropriate time, if any, to inform a client are:

(1)
    whether the client is an experienced user of legal services;
(2)
    the frequency o the member’s contact with the client;
(3)
    the nature and length of the professional relationship with the client;
(4)
    whether the member and client have discussed the member’s duty of confidentiality or any exceptions to that duty;
(5)
    the likelihood that the client’s matter will involve information within paragraph (B);
(6)
    the member’s belief, if applicable, that so informing the client is likely to increase the likelihood that a criminal act likely to result in the death of, or substantial bodily harm to, an individual; and

(7) the member’s belief, if applicable, that good faith efforts to persuade a client not to act on a threat have failed.

[10] Avoiding a chilling effect on the lawyer-client relationship. The foregoing flexible approach to the member’s informing a client of his or her ability or decision to reveal confidential information recognizes the concern that informing a client about limits on confidentiality may have a chilling effect on client communication. (See Discussion paragraph [1].) To avoid that chilling effect, one member may choose to inform the client of the member’s ability to reveal information as early as the outset of the representation, while another member may choose to inform a client only at a point when that client has imparted information that may fall under paragraph (B), or even choose not to inform a client until such time as the member attempts to counsel the client as contemplated in Discussion paragraph [7]. In each situation, the member will have discharged properly the requirement under subparagraph (C)(2), and will not be subject to discipline.

[11] Informing client that disclosure has been made; termination of the lawyer-client relationship. When a member has revealed confidential information under paragraph (B), in all but extraordinary cases the relationship between member and client will have deteriorated so as to make the member’s representation of the client impossible. Therefore, the member is required to seek to withdraw from the representation (see rule 3-700(B)), unless the member is able to obtain the client’s informed consent to the member’s continued representation. The member must inform the client of the fact of the member’s disclosure unless the member has a compelling interest in not informing the client, such as to protect the member, the member’s family or a third person from the risk of death or substantial bodily harm.

[12] Other consequences of the member’s disclosure. Depending upon the circumstances of a member’s disclosure of confidential information, there may be other important issues that a member must address. For example ,if a member will be called as a witness in the client’s matter, then rule 5-210 should be considered. Similarly, the member should consider his or her duties of loyalty and competency (rule 3-110).

[13] Other exceptions to confidentiality under California law. Rule 3-100 is not intended to augment, diminish, or preclude reliance upon, any other exceptions to the duty to preserve the confidentiality of client information recognized under California law. (Added by order of the Supreme Court, operative July 1, 2004.)

Rule 3-110. Failing to Act Competently

(A)
    A member shall not intentionally, recklessly, or repeatedly fail to perform legal services with competence.
(B)
    For purposes of this rule, “competence” in any legal service shall mean to apply the 1) diligence, 2) learning and skill, and 3) mental, emotional, and physical ability reasonably necessary for the performance of such service.

(C) If a member does not have sufficient learning and skill when the legal service is undertaken, the member may none the less perform such services competently by 1) associating with or, where appropriate, professionally consulting another lawyer reasonably believed to be competent, or 2) by acquiring sufficient learning and skill before performance is required.
Discussion:

The duties set forth in rule 3-110 include the duty to supervise the work of subordinate attorney and non-attorney employees or agents. (See, e.g., Waysman v. State Bar (1986)41Cal.3d452; Trousil vs.StateBar (1985)38 Cal.3d 337, 342 [211 Cal.Rptr. 525]; Palomo v. State Bar (1984) 36 Cal.3d 785 [205 Cal.Rptr. 834]; Crane v. State Bar (1981) 30 Cal.3d 117, 122; Black v. State Bar (1972) 7 Cal.3d 676, 692 [103 Cal.Rptr. 288; 499 P.2d 968]; Vaughn v. State Bar (1972) 6 Cal.3d 847, 857-858 [100Cal.Rptr. 713; 494 P.2d 1257]; Moore v. State Bar (1964)62 Cal.2d 74, 81 [41 Cal.Rptr. 161; 396 P.2d 577].)

In an emergency a lawyer may give advice or assistance in a matter in which the lawyer does not have the skill ordinarily required where referral to or consultation with another lawyer would be impractical. Even in an emergency, however, assistance should be limited to that reasonably necessary in the circumstances. (Amended by order of Supreme Court, operative September 14, 1992.)

Rule 3-120. Sexual Relations With Client

(A)
    For purposes of this rule, “sexual relations” means sexual intercourse or the touching of an intimate part of another person for the purpose of sexual arousal, gratification, or abuse.

(B)
    A member shall not:

(1)
    Require or demand sexual relations with a client incident to or as a condition of any professional representation; or
(2)
    Employ coercion, intimidation, or undue influence in entering into sexual relations with a client; or
(3)
    Continue representation of a client with whom the member has sexual relations if such sexual relations cause the member to perform legal services incompetently in violation of rule 3-110.

(C)
    Paragraph (B) shall not apply to sexual relations between members and their spouses or to ongoing consensual sexual relationships which predate the initiation of the lawyer-client relationship.
(D)
    Where a lawyer in a firm has sexual relations with a client but does not participate in the representation of that client, the lawyers in the firm shall not be subject to discipline under this rule solely because of the occurrence of such sexual relations.

Discussion:

Rule 3-120 is intended to prohibit sexual exploitation by a lawyer in the course of a professional representation. Often, based upon the nature of the underlying representation, a client exhibits great emotional vulnerability and dependence upon the advice and guidance of counsel. Attorneys owe the utmost duty of good faith and fidelity to clients. (See, e.g., Greenbaum v. State Bar (1976) 15 Cal.3d 893, 903 [126 Cal.Rptr. 785]; Alkow v. State Bar (1971) 3Cal.3d924,935[92Cal.Rptr.278]; Cutler v. State Bar (1969) 71 Cal.2d 241, 251 [78 Cal.Rptr 172]; Clancy

v. State Bar (1969) 71 Cal.2d 140, 146 [77 Cal.Rptr. 657].)The relationship between an attorney and client is a fiduciary relationship of the very highest character and all dealings between an attorney and client that are beneficial to the attorney will be closely scrutinized with the utmost strictness for unfairness. (See, e.g., Giovanazzi v. State Bar (1980) 28 Cal.3d 465, 472 [169 Cal Rptr. 581]; Benson v. State Bar (1975) 13 Cal.3d 581, 586 [119 Cal.Rptr. 297]; Lee v. State Bar (1970) 2 Cal.3d 927, 939 [88 Cal.Rptr. 361]; Clancy v. State Bar (1969) 71 Cal.2d 140, 146 [77Cal.Rptr. 657].) Where attorneys exercise undue influence over clients or take unfair advantage of clients, discipline is appropriate. (See, e.g., Magee v. State Bar (1962) 58 Cal.2d 423 [24 Cal.Rptr. 839]; Lantz v. State Bar (1931)212 Cal. 213 [298 P. 497].) In all client matters, a member is advised to keep clients’ interests paramount in the course of the member’s representation.

For purposes of this rule, if the client is an organization, any individual overseeing the representation shall be deemed to be the client. (See rule 3-600.)

Although paragraph (C) excludes representation of certain clients from the scope of rule 3-120, such exclusion is not intended to preclude the applicability of other Rules of Professional Conduct, including rule 3-110. (Added by order of Supreme Court, operative September 14, 1992.)

Rule 3-200. Prohibited Objectives of Employment

A member shall not seek, accept, or continue employment if the member knows or should know that the objective of such employment is:

(A)
    To bring an action, conduct a defense, assert a position in litigation, or take an appeal, without probable cause and for the purpose of harassing or maliciously injuring any person; or
(B)
    To present a claim or defense in litigation that is not warranted under existing law, unless it can be supported by a good faith argument for an extension, modification, or reversal of such existing law.

Rule 3-210. Advising the Violation of Law

A member shall not advise the violation of any law, rule, or ruling of a tribunal unless the member believes in good faith that such law, rule, or ruling is invalid. A member may take appropriate steps in good faith to test the validity of any law, rule, or ruling of a tribunal.
Discussion:

Rule 3-210 is intended to apply not only to the prospective conduct of a client but also to the interaction between the member and client and to the specific legal service sought by the client from the member. An example of the former is the handling of physical evidence of a crime in the possession of the client and offered to the member. (See People v. Meredith (1981) 29 Cal.3d 682 [175 Cal.Rptr.612].) An example of the latter is a request that the member negotiate the return of stolen property in exchange for the owner’s agreement not to report the theft to the police or prosecutorial authorities. (See People v. Pic’l (1982) 31 Cal.3d 731 [183 Cal.Rptr. 685].)

Rule 3-300. Avoiding Interests Adverse to a Client

A member shall not enter into a business transaction with a client; or knowingly acquire an ownership, possessory, security, or other pecuniary interest adverse to a client, unless each of the following requirements has been satisfied:

(A)
    The transaction or acquisition and its terms are fair and reasonable to the client and are fully disclosed and transmitted in writing to the client in a manner which should reasonably have been understood by the client; and
(B)
    The client is advised in writing that the client may seek the advice of an independent lawyer of the client’s choice and is given a reasonable opportunity to seek that advice; and
(C)
    The client thereafter consents in writing to the terms of the transaction or the terms of the acquisition.

Discussion:

Rule 3-300 is not intended to apply to the agreement by which the member is retained by the client, unless the agreement confers on the member an ownership, possessory, security, or other pecuniary interest adverse to the client. Such an agreement is governed, in part, by rule4-200.

Rule 3-300 is not intended to apply where the member and client each make an investment on terms offered to the general public or a significant portion thereof. For example, rule 3-300 is not intended to apply where A, a member, invests in a limited partnership syndicated by a third party. B, A’s client, makes the same investment. Although A and B are each investing in the same business, A did not enter into the transaction “with” B for the purposes of the rule.

Rule 3-300 is intended to apply where the member wishes to obtain an interest in client’s property in order to secure the amount of the member’s past due or future fees. (Amended by order of Supreme Court, operative September14, 1992.)

Rule 3-310. Avoiding the Representation of Adverse Interests

(A) For purposes of this rule:

(1)
    “Disclosure” means informing the client or former client of the relevant circumstances and of the actual and reasonably foreseeable adverse consequences to the client or former client;
(2)
    “Informed written consent” means the client’s or former client’s written agreement to the representation following written disclosure;
(3)
    “Written” means any writing as defined in Evidence Code section 250.

(B)
    A member shall not accept or continue representation of a client without providing written disclosure to the client where:

(1)
    The member has a legal, business, financial, professional, or personal relationship with a party or witness in the same matter; or

(2)
    The member knows or reasonably should know that:

(a) the member previously had a legal, business, financial, professional, or personal relationship with a party or witness in the same matter; and (b) the previous relationship would substantially affect the member’s representation; or

(3)
    The member has or had a legal, business, financial, professional, or personal relationship with another person or entity the member knows or reasonably should know would be affected substantially by resolution of the matter; or
(4)
    The member has or had a legal, business, financial, or professional interest in the subject matter of the representation.

(C)
    A member shall not, without the informed written consent of each client:

(1)
    Accept representation of more than one client in a matter in which the interests of the clients potentially conflict; or
(2)
    Accept or continue representation of more than one client in a matter in which the interests of the clients actually conflict; or
(3)
    Represent a client in a matter and at the same time in a separate matter accept as a client a person or entity whose interest in the first matter is adverse to the client in the first matter.

(D)
    A member who represents two or more clients shall not enter into an aggregate settlement of the claims of or against the clients without the informed written consent of each client.
(E)
    A member shall not, without the informed written consent of the client or former client, accept employment adverse to the client or former client where, by reason of the representation of the client or former client, the member has obtained confidential information material to the employment.

(F)
    A member shall not accept compensation for representing a client from one other than the client unless:

(1)
    There is no interference with the member’s independence of professional judgment or with the client lawyer relationship; and
(2)
    Information relating to representation of the client is protected as required by Business and Professions Code section 6068, subdivision (e); and
(3)
    The member obtains the client’s informed written consent, provided that no disclosure or consent is required if:

(a)
    such nondisclosure is otherwise authorized by law; or
(b)
    the member is rendering legal services on behalf of any public agency which provides legal services to other public agencies or the public.

Discussion:

Rule 3-310 is not intended to prohibit a member from representing parties having antagonistic positions on the same legal question that has arisen in different cases, unless representation of either client would be adversely affected.

Other rules and laws may preclude making adequate disclosure under this rule. If such disclosure is precluded, informed written consent is likewise precluded. (See, e.g. ,Business and Professions Code section 6068, subdivision (e).)

Paragraph (B) is not intended to apply to the relationship of a member to another party’s lawyer. Such relationships are governed by rule 3-320.

Paragraph (B) is not intended to require either the disclosure of the new engagement to a former client or the consent of the former client to the new engagement. However, both disclosure and consent are required if paragraph (E) applies.

While paragraph (B) deals with the issues of adequate disclosure to the present client or clients of the member’s present or past relationships to other parties or witnesses or present interest in the subject matter of the representation, paragraph (E) is intended to protect the confidences of another present or former client. These two paragraphs are to apply as complementary provisions.

Paragraph (B) is intended to apply only to a member’s own relationships or interests, unless the member knows that a partner or associate in the same firm as the member has or had a relationship with another party or witness or has or had an interest in the subject matter of the representation.

Subparagraphs (C)(1) and (C)(2) are intended to apply to all types of legal employment, including the concurrent representation of multiple parties in litigation or in a single transaction or in some other common enterprise or legal relationship. Examples of the latter include the formation of a partnership for several partners or a corporation for several shareholders, the preparation of an ante-nuptial agreement, or joint or reciprocal wills for a husband and wife, or the resolution of an “uncontested” marital dissolution. In such situations, for the sake of convenience or economy, the parties may well prefer to employ a single counsel, but a member must disclose the potential adverse aspects of such multiple representation (e.g., Evid. Code,§962) and must obtain the informed written consent of the clients thereto pursuant to subparagraph (C)(1). Moreover, if the potential adversity should become actual, the member must obtain the further informed written consent of the clients pursuant to subparagraph (C)(2).

Subparagraph(C)(3) is intended to apply to representations of clients in both litigation and transactional matters.

In State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Company v. Federal Insurance Company (1999) 72 Cal.App. 4th 1422[86Cal.Rptr.2d20],thecourtheldthatsubparagraph(C)(3)was violated when a member, retained by an insurer to defend one suit, and while that suit was still pending, filed a direct action against the same insurer in an unrelated action without securing the insurer’s consent. Notwithstanding State Farm, subparagraph (C)(3) is not intended to apply with respect to the relationship between an insurer and a member when, in each matter, the insurer’s interest is only as an indemnity provider and not as a direct party to the action.

There are some matters in which the conflicts are such that written consent may not suffice for non-disciplinary purposes. (See Woods v. Superior Court (1983) 149 Cal.App.3d 931 [197 Cal.Rptr. 185]; Klemm v. Superior Court (1977) 75 Cal.App.3d 893 [142 Cal.Rptr. 509]; Ishmael v. Millington (1966) 241 Cal.App.2d 520 [50 Cal.Rptr. 592].)

Paragraph (D) is not intended to apply to class action settlements subject to court approval.

Paragraph (F) is not intended to abrogate existing relationships between insurers and insureds whereby the insurer has the contractual right to unilaterally select counsel for the insured, where there is no conflict of interest. (See San Diego Navy Federal Credit Union v. Cumis Insurance Society (1984) 162 Cal.App.3d 358 [208Cal.Rptr. 494].) (Amended by order of Supreme Court: operative September 14, 1992; operative March 3, 2003.)

Rule 3-320. Relationship With Other Party’s Lawyer

A member shall not represent a client in a matter in which another party’s lawyer is a spouse, parent, child, or sibling of the member, lives with the member, is a client of the member, or has an intimate personal relationship with the member, unless the member informs the client in writing of the relationship.
Discussion:

Rule 3-320 is not intended to apply to circumstances in which a member fails to advise the client of a relationship with another lawyer who is merely a partner or associate in the same law firm as the adverse party’s counsel, and who has no direct involvement in the matter. (Amended by order of Supreme Court, operative September 14, 1992.)

Rule 3-400. Limiting Liability to Client

A member shall not:

(A)
    Contract with a client prospectively limiting the member’s liability to the client for the member’s professional malpractice; or
(B)
    Settle a claim or potential claim for the member’s liability to the client for the member’s professional malpractice, unless the client is informed in writing that the client may seek the advice of an independent lawyer of the client’s choice regarding the settlement and is given a reasonable opportunity to seek that advice.

Discussion:

Rule 3-400 is not intended to apply to customary qualifications and limitations in legal opinions and memoranda, nor is it intended to prevent a member from reasonably limiting the scope of the member’s employment or representation. (Amended by order of Supreme Court, operative September 14, 1992.)

Rule 3-500. Communication

A member shall keep a client reasonably informed about significant developments relating to the employment or representation, including promptly complying with reasonable requests for information and copies of significant documents when necessary to keep the client so informed.
Discussion:

Rule 3-500 is not intended to change a member’s duties to his or her clients. It is intended to make clear that, while a client must be informed of significant developments in the matter, a member will not be disciplined for failing to communicate insignificant or irrelevant information. (See Bus. & Prof. Code, §6068, subd. (m).)

A member may contract with the client in their employment agreement that the client assumes responsibility for the cost of copying significant documents. This rule is not intended to prohibit a claim for the recovery of the member’s expense in any subsequent legal proceeding.

Rule 3-500 is not intended to create, augment, diminish, or eliminate any application of the work product rule. The obligation of the member to provide work product to the client shall be governed by relevant statutory and decisional law. Additionally, this rule is not intended to apply to any document or correspondence that is subject to a protective order or non-disclosure agreement, or to override applicable statutory or decisional law requiring that certain information not be provided to criminal defendants who are clients of the member. (Amended by order of the Supreme Court, operative June 5, 1997.)

Rule 3-510. Communication of Settlement Offer

(A) A member shall promptly communicate to the member’s client:

(1)
    All terms and conditions of any offer made to the client in a criminal matter; and
(2)
    All amounts, terms, and conditions of any written offer of settlement made to the client in all other matters.

(B) As used in this rule, “client” includes a person who possesses the authority to accept an offer of settlement or plea, or, in a class action, all the named representatives of the class.
Discussion:

Rule 3-510 is intended to require that counsel in a criminal matter convey all offers, whether written or oral, to the client, as give and take negotiations are less common in criminal matters, and, even were they to occur, such negotiations should require the participation of the accused.

Any oral offers of settlement made to the client in a civil matter should also be communicated if they are “significant” for the purposes of rule 3-500.

Rule 3-600. Organization as Client

(A)
    In representing an organization, a member shall conform his or her representation to the concept that the client is the organization itself, acting through its highest authorized officer, employee, body, or constituent overseeing the particular engagement.

(B)
    If a member acting on behalf of an organization knows that an actual or apparent agent of the organization acts or intends or refuses to act in a manner that is or may be a violation of law reasonably imputable to the organization, or in a manner which is likely to result in substantial injury to the organization, the member shall not violate his or her duty of protecting all confidential information as provided in Business and Professions Code section 6068, subdivision (e).Subject to Business and Professions Code section 6068,subdivision (e), the member may take such actions as appear to the member to be in the best lawful interest of the organization. Such actions may include among others:

(1)Urgingreconsiderationofthe matter while explaining its likely consequences to the organization; or (2) Referring the matter to the next higher authority in the organization ,including, if warranted by the seriousness of the matter, referral to the highest internal authority that can act on behalf of the organization.

(C)
    If, despite the member’s actions in accordance with paragraph (B), the highest authority that can act on behalf of the organization insists upon action or a refusal to act that is a violation of law and is likely to result in substantial injury to the organization, the member’s response is limited to the member’s right, and, where appropriate, duty to resign in accordance with rule 3-700.
(D)
    In dealing with an organization’s directors, officers, employees, members, shareholders, or other constituents, a member shall explain the identity of the client for whom the member acts, whenever it is or becomes apparent that the organization’s interests are or may become adverse to those of the constituent(s) with whom the member is dealing. The member shall not mislead such a constituent into believing that the constituent may communicate confidential information to the member in a way that will not be used in the organization’s interest if that is or becomes adverse to the constituent.
(E)
    A member representing an organization may also represent any of its directors, officers, employees ,members ,shareholders, or other constituents, subject to the provisions of rule 3-310. If the organization’s consent to the dual representation is required by rule 3-310, the consent shall be given by an appropriate constituent of the organization other than the individual or constituent who is to be represented, or by the shareholder(s) or organization members.

Discussion:

Rule 3-600 is not intended to enmesh members in the intricacies of the entity and aggregate theories of partnership.

Rule 3-600 is not intended to prohibit members from representing both an organization and other parties connected with it, as for instance (as simply one example) in establishing employee benefit packages for closely held corporations or professional partnerships.

Rule 3-600 is not intended to create or to validate artificial distinctions between entities and their officers, employees, or members, nor is it the purpose of the rule to deny the existence or importance of such formal distinctions. In dealing with a close corporation or small association, members commonly perform professional engagements for both the organization and its major constituents. When a change in control occurs or is threatened, members are faced with complex decisions involving personal and institutional relationships and loyalties and have frequently had difficulty in perceiving their correct duty. (See People ex rel Deukmejian v. Brown (1981) 29 Cal.3d 150 [172 Cal.Rptr.478]; Goldsteinv.Lees (1975)46Cal.App.3d614 [120 Cal.Rptr. 253]; Woods v. Superior Court (1983) 149 Cal.App.3d 931 [197 Cal.Rptr. 185]; In re Banks (1978) 283 Ore. 459 [584 P.2d 284]; 1 A.L.R.4th 1105.) In resolving such multiple relationships, members must rely on case law.

Rule 3-700. Termination of Employment

(A)
    In General.

(1)
    If permission for termination of employment is required by the rules of a tribunal, a member shall not withdraw from employment in a proceeding before that tribunal without its permission.
(2)
    A member shall not withdraw from employment until the member has taken reasonable steps to avoid reasonably foreseeable prejudice to the rights of the client, including giving due notice to the client, allowing time for employment of other counsel, complying with rule 3-700(D), and complying with applicable laws and rules.

(B)
    Mandatory Withdrawal.

A member representing a client before a tribunal shall withdraw from employment with the permission of the tribunal, if required by its rules, and a member representing a client in other matters shall withdraw from employment, if:

(1)
    The member knows or should know that the client is bringing an action, conducting a defense, asserting a position in litigation, or taking an appeal, without probable cause and for the purpose of harassing or maliciously injuring any person; or
(2)
    The member knows or should know that continued employment will result in violation of these rules or of the State Bar Act; or

(3) The member’s mental or physical condition renders it unreasonably difficult to carry out the employment effectively.

(C) Permissive Withdrawal.

If rule 3-700(B) is not applicable, a member may not request permission to withdraw in matters pending before tribunal, and may not withdraw in other matters, unless such request or such withdrawal is because:

(1)
    The client

(a) insists upon presenting a claim or defense that is not warranted under existing law and cannot be supported by good faith argument for an extension, modification, or reversal of existing law, or

(b)
    seeks to pursue an illegal course of conduct, or
(c)
    insists that the member pursue a course of conduct that is illegal or that is prohibited under these rules or the State Bar Act, or
(d)
    by other conduct renders it unreasonably difficult for the member to carry out the employment effectively, or
(e)
    insists, in a matter not pending before a tribunal, that the member engage in conduct that is contrary tithe judgment and advice of the member but not prohibited under these rules or the State Bar Act, or
(f)
    breaches an agreement or obligation to the member as to expenses or fees.

(2)
    The continued employment is likely to result in a violation of these rules or of the State Bar Act; or
(3)
    The inability to work with co-counsel indicates that the best interests of the client likely will be served by withdrawal; or

(4)
    The member’s mental or physical condition renders it difficult for the member to carry out the employment effectively; or

(5)The client knowingly and freely assents to terminationof the employment; or

(6)
    The member believes in good faith, in a proceeding pending before a tribunal, that the tribunal will find the existence of other good cause for withdrawal.

(D) Papers, Property, and Fees.

A member whose employment has terminated shall:

(1)
    Subject to any protective order or non-disclosure agreement, promptly release to the client, at there quest of the client, all the client papers and property. “Client papers and property “includes correspondence, pleadings, deposition transcripts, exhibits, physical evidence, expert’s reports, and other items reasonably necessary tithe client’s representation, whether the client has paid for them or not; and
(2)
    Promptly refund any part of a fee paid in advance that has not been earned. This provision is not applicable to a true retainer fee which is paid solely for the purpose of ensuring the availability of the member for the matter.

Discussion:

Subparagraph (A)(2) provides that “a member shall not withdraw from employment until the member has taken reasonable steps to avoid reasonably foreseeable prejudice to the rights of the clients.” What such steps would include, of course, will vary according to the circumstances. Absent special circumstances, “reasonable steps” do not include providing additional services to the client once the success or counsel has been employed and rule3-700(D)hasbeen satisfied.

Paragraph (D) makes clear the member’s duties in the recurring situation in which new counsel seeks to obtain client files from a member discharged by the client. It codifies existing case law. (See Academy of California Optometrists v. Superior Court (1975) 51 Cal.App.3d 999 [124Cal.Rptr.668];Weissv.Marcus (1975)51Cal.App.3d590 [124 Cal.Rptr. 297].) Paragraph (D) also requires that the member “promptly” return unearned fees paid in advance. If a client disputes the amount to be returned, the member shall comply with rule 4-100(A)(2).

Paragraph (D) is not intended to prohibit a member from making, at the member’s own expense, and retaining copies of papers released to the client, nor to prohibit a claim forth recovery of the member’s expense in any subsequent legal proceeding.

CHAPTER 4.
FINANCIAL RELATIONSHIP WITH CLIENTS

Rule 4-100. Preserving Identity of Funds and Property of a Client

(A)
    All funds received or held for the benefit of clients by a member or law firm, including advances for costs and expenses, shall be deposited in one or more identifiable bank accounts labeled “Trust Account,” “Client’s Funds Account” or words of similar import, maintained in the State of California, or, with written consent of the client, in any other jurisdiction where there is a substantial relationship between the client or the client’s business and the other jurisdiction. No funds belonging to the member or the law firm shall be deposited therein or otherwise commingled therewith except as follows:

(1)
    Funds reasonably sufficient to pay bank charges.
(2)
    In the case of funds belonging in part to a client and in part presently or potentially to the member or the law firm, the portion belonging to the member or law firm must be withdrawn at the earliest reasonable time after the member’s interest in that portion becomes fixed. However, when the right of the member or law firm to receive a portion of trust funds is disputed by the client, the disputed portion shall not be withdrawn until the dispute is finally resolved.

(B)
    A member shall:

(1) Promptly notify a client of the receipt of the client’s funds, securities, or other properties.

(2) Identify and label securities and properties of a client promptly upon receipt and place them in a safe deposit box or other place of safekeeping as soon as practicable.

(3)Maintain complete records of all funds, securities, and other properties of a client coming into the possession of the member or law firm and render appropriate accounts to the client regarding them; preserve such records for a period of no less than five years after final appropriate distribution of such funds or properties; and comply with any order for an audit of such records issued pursuant tithe Rules of Procedure of the State Bar.

(4) Promptly pay or deliver, as requested by the client, any funds, securities, or other properties in the possession of the member which the client is entitled to receive.

(C) The Board of Governors of the State Bar shall have the authority to formulate and adopt standards as to what “records” shall be maintained by members and law firms in accordance with subparagraph (B)(3). The standards formulated and adopted by the Board, as from time to time amended, shall be effective and binding on all members.
Standards:

Pursuant to rule 4-100(C) the Board of Governors of the State Bar adopted the following standards, effective January1, 1993, as to what “records” shall be maintained by members and law firms in accordance with subparagraph(B)(3).

(1)
    A member shall, from the date of receipt of client funds through the period ending five years from the date of appropriate disbursement of such funds, maintain:

(a)
    a written ledger for each client on whose behalf funds are held that sets forth:

(i)
    the name of such client,
(ii)
    the date, amount and source of all funds received on behalf of such client,

(iii) the date, amount, payee and purpose of each disbursement made on behalf of such client, and (iv) the current balance for such client;

(b)
    a written journal for each bank account that sets forth:

(i)
    the name of such account,
(ii)
    the date, amount and client affected by each debit and credit, and

(iii) the current balance in such account;

(c)
    all bank statements and canceled checks for each bank account; and
(d)
    each monthly reconciliation (balancing) of (a), (b),and (c).

(2)
    A member shall, from the date of receipt of all securities and other properties held for the benefit of client through the period ending five years from the date of appropriate disbursement of such securities and other properties, maintain a written journal that specifies:

(a)
    each item of security and property held;
(b)
    the person on whose behalf the security or property is held;
(c)
    the date of receipt of the security or property;
(d)
    the date of distribution of the security or property; and
(e)
    person to whom the security or property was distributed.

(Trust Account Record Keeping Standards as Adopted by the Board of Governors on July 11, 1992, effective January1, 1993.)

Rule 4-200. Fees for Legal Services

(A)
    A member shall not enter into an agreement for, charge, or collect an illegal or unconscionable fee.

(B)
    Unconscionability of a fee shall be determined on the basis of all the facts and circumstances existing at the time the agreement is entered into except where the parties contemplate that the fee will be affected by later events. Among the factors to be considered, where appropriate, in determining the conscionability of a fee are the following:

(1)
    The amount of the fee in proportion to the value of the services performed.
(2)
    The relative sophistication of the member and the client.
(3)
    The novelty and difficulty of the questions involved and the skill requisite to perform the legal service properly.
(4)
    The likelihood, if apparent to the client, that the acceptance of the particular employment will preclude other employment by the member.
(5)
    The amount involved and the results obtained.
(6)
    The time limitations imposed by the client or by the circumstances.
(7)
    The nature and length of the professional relationship with the client.

(8)The experience, reputation, and ability of the member or members performing the services.

(9)
    Whether the fee is fixed or contingent.
(10)
    The time and labor required.
(11)
    The informed consent of the client to the fee.

(Amended by order of Supreme Court, operative September 14, 1992.)

Rule 4-210. Payment of Personal or Business Expenses Incurred by or for a Client

(A)
    A member shall not directly or indirectly pay or agree to pay, guarantee, represent, or sanction a representation that the member or member’s law firm will pay the personal or business expenses of a prospective or existing client, except that this rule shall not prohibit a member:

(1)
    With the consent of the client, from paying or agreeing to pay such expenses to third persons from funds collected or to be collected for the client as a result of the representation; or
(2)
    After employment, from lending money to the client upon the client’s promise in writing to repay such loan; or
(3)
    From advancing the costs of prosecuting or defending a claim or action or other wise protecting or promoting the client’s interests, the repayment of which may be contingent on the outcome of the matter. Such costs within the meaning of this subparagraph (3) shall be limited to all reasonable expenses of litigation or reasonable expenses in preparation for litigation or in providing any legal services to the client.

(B)
    Nothing in rule 4-210 shall be deemed to limit rules 3300, 3-310, and 4-300.

Rule 4-300. Purchasing Property at a Foreclosure or a Sale Subject to Judicial Review

(A)
    A member shall not directly or indirectly purchase property at a probate, foreclosure, receiver’s, trustee’s, or judicial sale in an action or proceeding in which such member or any lawyer affiliated by reason of personal, business, or professional relationship with that member or with that member’s law firm is acting as a lawyer for a party or as executor, receiver, trustee, administrator, guardian, or conservator.
(B)
    A member shall not represent the seller at a probate, foreclosure, receiver, trustee, or judicial sale in an action or proceeding in which the purchaser is a spouse or relative of the member or of another lawyer in the member’s law firm or is an employee of the member or the member’s law firm. (Amended by order of Supreme Court, operative September 14, 1992.)

Rule 4-400. Gifts From Client

A member shall not induce a client to make a substantial gift, including a testamentary gift, to the member or to the member’s parent, child, sibling, or spouse, except where the client is related to the member.
Discussion:

A member may accept a gift from a member’s client, subject to general standards of fairness and absence of undue influence. The member who participates in the preparation of an instrument memorializing a gift which is otherwise permissible ought not to be subject to professional discipline. On the other hand, where impermissible influence occurred, discipline is appropriate. See Mageev. State Bar (1962) 58 Cal.2d 423 [24 Cal.Rptr. 839].)

CHAPTER 5.
ADVOCACY AND REPRESENTATION

Rule 5-100.ThreateningCriminal,Administrative, or Disciplinary Charges

(A)
    A member shall not threaten to present criminal, administrative, or disciplinary charges to obtain an advantage in a civil dispute.
(B)
    As used in paragraph (A) of this rule, the term “administrative charges” means the filing or lodging of a complaint with a federal, state, or local governmental entity which may order or recommend the loss or suspension of a license, or may impose or recommend the imposition of a fine, pecuniary sanction, or other sanction of a quasi-criminal nature but does not include filing charges with an administrative entity required by law as a condition precedent to maintaining a civil action.
(C)
    As used in paragraph (A) of this rule, the term “civil dispute” means a controversy or potential controversy over the rights and duties of two or more parties under civil law, whether or not an action has been commenced, and includes an administrative proceeding of a quasi-civil nature pending before a federal, state, or local governmental entity.

Discussion:

Rule 5-100 is not intended to apply to a member’s threatening to initiate contempt proceedings against a party for a failure to comply with a court order.

Paragraph (B) is intended to exempt the threat of filing an administrative charge which is a prerequisite to filing a civil complaint on the same transaction or occurrence.

For purposes of paragraph (C), the definition of “civil dispute” makes clear that the rule is applicable prior to the formal filing of a civil action.

Rule 5-110. Performing the Duty of Member in Government Service

A member in government service shall not institute or cause to be instituted criminal charges when the member knows or should know that the charges are not supported by probable cause. If, after the institution of criminal charges, the member in government service having responsibility for prosecuting the charges becomes aware that those charges are not supported by probable cause, the member shall promptly so advise the court in which the criminal matter is pending.

Rule 5-120. Trial Publicity

(A) A member who is participating or has participated in the investigation or litigation of a matter shall not make an extrajudicial statement that a reasonable person would expect to be disseminated by means of public communication if the member knows or reasonably should know that it will have a substantial likelihood of materially prejudicing an adjudicative proceeding in the matter.

(B) Notwithstanding paragraph (A), a member may state:

(1)
    the claim, offense or defense involved and, except when prohibited by law, the identity of the persons involved;
(2)
    the information contained in a public record;
(3)
    that an investigation of the matter is in progress;
(4)
    the scheduling or result of any step in litigation;
(5)
    a request for assistance in obtaining evidence and information necessary thereto;
(6)
    a warning of danger concerning the behavior of a person involved, when there is reason to believe that there exists the likelihood of substantial harm to an individual or the public interest; and

(7)
    in a criminal case, in addition to subparagraphs (1)through (6):

(a)
    the identity, residence, occupation, and family status of the accused;
(b)
    if the accused has not been apprehended, the information necessary to aid in apprehension of that person;
(c)
    the fact, time, and place of arrest; and

(d) the identity of investigating and arresting officers or agencies and the length of the investigation.

(C) Notwithstanding paragraph (A), a member may make a statement that a reasonable member would believe is required to protect a client from the substantial undue prejudicial effect of recent publicity not initiated by the member or the member’s client. A statement made pursuant to this paragraph shall be limited to such information as is necessary to mitigate the recent adverse publicity.
Discussion:

Rule 5-120 is intended to apply equally to prosecutors and criminal defense counsel.

Whether an extrajudicial statement violates rule 5-120depends on many factors, including: (1) whether the extrajudicial statement presents information clearly inadmissible as evidence in the matter for the purpose of proving or disproving a material fact in issue; (2) whether the extrajudicial statement presents information the member knows is false, deceptive, or the use of which would violate Business and Professions Code section 6068(d); (3)whether the extrajudicial statement violates a lawful “gag” order, or protective order, statute, rule of court, or special rule of confidentiality (for example, in juvenile, domestic, mental disability, and certain criminal proceedings); and (4)the timing of the statement.

Paragraph(A) is intended to apply to statements made by or on behalf of the member.

Subparagraph (B)(6) is not intended to create, augment, diminish, or eliminate any application of the lawyer-client privilege or of Business and Professions Code section 6068(e) regarding the member’s duty to maintain client confidence and secrets. (Added by order of the Supreme Court, operative October 1, 1995.)

Rule 5-200. Trial Conduct

In presenting a matter to a tribunal, a member:

(A)
    Shall employ, forth purpose of maintaining the causes confided to the member such means only as are consistent with truth;
(B)
    Shall not seek to mislead the judge, judicial officer, or jury by an artifice or false statement of fact or law;
(C)
    Shall not intentionally misquote to a tribunal the language of a book, statute, or decision;
(D)
    Shall not, knowing its invalidity, cite as authority a decision that has been overruled or a statute that has been repealed or declared unconstitutional; and

(E) Shall not assert personal knowledge of the facts tissue, except when testifying as a witness.

Rule 5-210. Member as Witness

A member shall not act as an advocate before a jury which will hear testimony from the member unless:

(A)
    The testimony relates to an uncontested matter; or
(B)
    The testimony relates to the nature and value of legal services rendered in the case; or
(C)
    The member has the informed written consent of the client. If the member represents the People or a governmental entity, the consent shall be obtained from the head of the office or a designee of the head of the office by which the member is employed and shall be consistent with principles of recusal.

Discussion:

Rule 5-210 is intended to apply to situations in which the member knows or should know that he or she ought to be called as a witness in litigation in which there is a jury. This rule is not intended to encompass situations in which the member is representing the client in an adversarial proceeding and is testifying before a judge. In no adversarial proceedings, as where the member testifies on behalf of the client in a hearing before a legislative body, rule 5-210 is not applicable.

Rule 5-210 is not intended to apply to circumstances in which a lawyer in an advocate’s firm will be a witness. (Amended  by order of Supreme Court, operative September 14, 1992.)

Rule 5-220. Suppression of Evidence

A member shall not suppress any evidence that the member or the member’s client has a legal obligation to reveal or to produce.

Rule 5-300. Contact With Officials

(A)
    A member shall not directly or indirectly give or lend anything of value to a judge, official, or employee of a tribunal unless the personal or family relationship between the member and the judge, official, or employee is such that gifts are customarily given and exchanged. Nothing contained in this rule shall prohibit a member from contributing to the campaign fund of a judge running for election or confirmation pursuant to applicable law pertaining to such contributions.

(B)
    A member shall not directly or indirectly communicate with or argue to a judge or judicial officer upon the merits of a contested matter pending before such judge or judicial officer, except:

(1)
    In open court; or
(2)
    With the consent of all other counsel in such matter; or
(3)
    In the presence of all other counsel in such matter; or
(4)
    In writing with a copy thereof furnished to such other counsel; or
(5)
    In ex parte matters.

(C)
    As used in this rule, “judge” and “judicial officer” shall include law clerks, research attorneys, or other court personnel who participate in the decision-making process.(Amended by order of Supreme Court, operative September14, 1992.)

Rule 5-310. Prohibited Contact With Witnesses

A member shall not:

(A)
    Advise or directly or indirectly cause a person to secrete himself or herself or to leave the jurisdiction of a tribunal for the purpose of making that person unavailable as a witness therein.
(B)
    Directly or indirectly pay, offer to pay, or acquiesce in the payment of compensation to a witness contingent upon the content of the witness’s testimony or the outcome of the case.

Except where prohibited by law, a member may advance, guarantee, or acquiesce in the payment of:

(1)
    Expenses reasonably incurred by a witness in attending or testifying.
(2)
    Reasonable compensation to a witness for loss of time in attending or testifying.
(3)
    A reasonable fee for the professional services of an expert witness.

Rule 5-320. Contact With Jurors

(A) A member connected with a case shall not communicate directly or indirectly with anyone the member knows to be a member of the venire from which the jury will be selected for trial of that case.

(B)
    During trial a member connected with the case shall not communicate directly or indirectly with any juror.
(C)
    During trial a member who is not connected with the case shall not communicate directly or indirectly concerning the case with anyone the member knows is a juror in the case.
(D)
    After discharge of the jury from further consideration of a case a member shall not ask questions of or make comments to a member of that jury that are intended to harass or embarrass the juror or to influence the juror’s actions in future jury service.

(E) A member shall not directly or indirectly conduct an out of court investigation of a person who is either a member of the venire or a juror in a manner likely to influence the state of mind of such person in connection with present or future jury service.

(F)
    All restrictions imposed by this rule also apply to communications with, or investigations of, members of the family of a person who is either a member of the venire or a juror.
(G)
    A member shall reveal promptly to the court improper conduct by a person who is either a member of a venire or a juror, or by another toward a person who is a either a member of a venire or a juror or a member of his or her family, of which the member has knowledge.
(H)
    This rule does not prohibit a member from communicating with persons who are members of a venire or jurors as a part of the official proceedings.
(I)
    For purposes of this rule, “juror” means any empaneled, discharged, or excused juror. (Amended by order of Supreme Court, operative September 14, 1992.)