This is a wonderful depiction of the brain with the frontal cortex in yellow. Human brains have 4 regions: frontal, temporal, parietal and the occipital.
One major area of the brain general responsible for memory is called the Hippocampus. It is a small piece of the brain buried very deeply inside the brain. It is considered a major repository for long term memory. Dr. Ebert had a profound experience at the brain dissection course when he actually held a real Hippocampus in his hands.
There have been hundreds if not thousands of studies on the transformation of short term memory to long term memory. Generally there are 3 types of memories: Registration, Short Term Memory and Long Term Memory. Registration refers to the recognition of information by the senses. If your senses do not register information you cannot remember it. Short Term memory (STM) is information recognized for about 30 seconds to a minute. Examples of STM is remembering a phone number just provided to you or remembering a name just given to you. Long Term Memory (LTM) refers to information remembered across time. Events that took place ten years ago or knowledge learned a long time ago such as how to nail a board to a fence are types of LTM.